Research and Publications
Moral Hazard in Risk-Averse Teams
1987, Rand (Bell) Journal of Economics
Eric Bennett Rasmusen
Holmstrom (1982) has shown that a non-budget-balancing contract induces a team of risk-neutral agents to choose the first-best effort levels. This is not generally true when agents are risk averse. Furthermore, a "massacre" contract, which punishes all but one agent when the outcome is low, can attain the first best over a wider range of parameters than any other budget-balancing contract.
Rasmusen, Eric Bennett (1987), "Moral Hazard in Risk-Averse Teams," RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 18, Fall, 428-435.