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Indiana University Bloomington

Doctoral Programs

1960 Notable

From 1960-2013, we prepared nearly 1,200 men and women
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Journal Articles

Development of Archetypes of International Marketing Strategy

2006, Journal of International Business Studies

Lewis K.S. Lim, Franklin Acito, Alexander Rusetski


The extant business literature contains three separate characterizations of international marketing strategy: standardization–adaptation, concentration–dispersion, and integration–independence. These characterizations have, for decades, informed researchers, students, and practitioners alike of the strategic options a multinational firm might have in formulating its cross-border marketing approaches. Although useful, these characterizations have yet to be unified within an integrative classification scheme that considers the gestalt combinatorial patterns along multiple strategy dimensions. Toward creating such a classification scheme, this paper proposes a holistic conceptualization of international marketing strategy grounded in configurational theory, whereby strategies are viewed as multidimensional archetypes. We present evidence of three distinct international marketing strategy archetypes obtained through an exploratory case coding/clustering study. After discussing the characteristics, possible drivers, and contingent performance potentials of these archetypes, we offer directions for future research.


Lim, Lewis K. S., Frank Acito, and Alexander Rusetski (2006), "Development of Archetypes of International Marketing Strategy," Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 499-524.